Piper alpha pdf. Piper Alpha: The Disaster in Detail 2022-12-26
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Testing a leaf for starch is a common experiment in biology classrooms, as it allows students to understand the process of photosynthesis and how plants use energy. In this lab report, we will outline the materials and methods used, describe the results of the experiment, and discuss the implications of these results.
Fresh leaf from a green plant
Glass stirring rod
Obtain a fresh leaf from a green plant and gently wash it with water to remove any dirt or debris.
Fill a beaker with water and add a few drops of iodine solution.
Use a dropper to place a small drop of the iodine solution onto the leaf.
Observe the color of the iodine on the leaf. If the leaf contains starch, the iodine will turn blue or black. If the leaf does not contain starch, the iodine will remain yellow or orange.
Repeat the process with a few additional drops of iodine to confirm the results.
If necessary, use a glass stirring rod to scrape a small piece of tissue from the leaf and place it in a test tube. Add a few drops of iodine solution to the test tube and observe the color change.
In our experiment, we found that the iodine turned blue or black when applied to the leaf, indicating the presence of starch. When a small piece of tissue was placed in a test tube and mixed with iodine solution, the solution also turned blue or black. These results suggest that the leaf we tested contains starch.
Starch is a complex carbohydrate that plants use to store energy. It is produced during photosynthesis, when the plant uses energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose. The glucose is then converted into starch and stored in the plant's tissues, such as leaves, stems, and roots.
The presence of starch in the leaf we tested confirms that the plant is able to carry out photosynthesis and produce glucose. This is important for the plant's survival, as it allows the plant to store energy for times when sunlight is not available, such as at night or during periods of low light intensity.
Overall, testing a leaf for starch is a simple and effective way to understand the process of photosynthesis and the role of starch in plant metabolism. It also helps students learn how to use scientific equipment and follow experimental procedures, which are important skills for any aspiring scientist.
At shift changeover lead production operators would not review or discuss suspended permits. According to witnesses, if the newcomer had worked offshore before, then training was brief to the point of non-existent. How are those changes managed? Production of oil started in December 1976, less than four years after discovery, a record that has only rarely been beaten. When did I last carry out a permit to work audit to see how the system actually works in practice? Was the procedure monitored? Emergency response — evacuation One of the most shocking aspects of the Piper Alpha tragedy was the inability to evacuate the personnel on board. When the disaster occurred, offshore safety was governed through the use of prescriptive regulations. A gas treatment plant was retrofitted and gas export started in December 1978.
The safety induction consisted of a being handed a booklet and told to read it. With thousands of cubic metres of highly volatile fuel burning every second, the 20,000-tonne steel platform melted over the next 80 minutes. The escaping condensate ignited. The platform floor consisted of steel grates and under normal circumstances would have allowed the burning oil to drip harmlessly into the sea, but divers on the previous shift had placed rubber matting on the metal grate likely to cushion their bare feet from the sharp metal grates , allowing the oil to form a burning puddle on the platform. The radio room was rendered useless; communications were lost almost at once. Oil and Gas UK Magazine. Shift handover was a busy time.
It was only after this explosion that the Claymore platform stopped pumping oil. Conclusions After any accident, there is a very human need to find out exactly what went wrong, to attribute clear causes for any accident, to implement specific recommendations to fix them and move on. The Cullen inquiry uncovered not only what probably happened on the terrible night of 06 July 1988, but also the complex path leading up to it, the early warnings and missed opportunities that might have prevented a tragedy in which 167 people lost their lives. Many possible causes were advanced. Lord William Douglas November 1990. Because of the way in which work permits were organised on Piper Alpha, the operators would not have known that the pressure relief valve for pump A was missing.
Emergency response — evacuation; 7. The recommendations led Most significant of these recommendations was that operators were required to present a In 2013, on the 25th anniversary of the disaster, the video Remembering Piper - The Night That Changed Our Lives was released by Step Change in Safety. What process ensures that the problem that caused them to be overridden is fixed and they are re-instated or upgraded? The men in the control room were knocked off their feet and thrown to floor. The sequential failure of the gas lines then caused a rapid escalation of the disaster. The suction pipes under Piper Alpha were protected with grilles to prevent divers from being sucked in, although anyone within 5 metres of the inlet could be drawn towards them when the fire pumps started with the risk of serious injuries. The manager assumed from the existing documents that it would be safe to start PumpA.
A golden opportunity to put these right was missed. Shortly afterwards, gas alarms activated, the first-stage gas compressors tripped and the flare was observed to be much larger than usual. The fires from the wells and the oil and gas lines all of which ruptured, one by one had produced flames with a height of about 200 metres and a peak rate of energy consumption of ~100 gigawatts, three times the rate of UK total energy consumption. Oil was exported through a sub-sea line, 128 miles long, to the purpose-built refinery on the island of Flotta in the Orkneys. All those who survived did so by making their way to the sea by whatever means they could. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
Oil production started in 1976 with about 250,000 barrels 40,000m 3 of oil per day, increasing to 300,000 barrels 48,000m 3. By reconnecting the air supplies to the valves, they could then be opened using toggle buttons on a local control panel by pump A. Those with excellent permit to work systems might have felt complacent and failed to learn the many other lessons that Cullen gives in his truly outstanding report. Water alone would not have put the oil fires out and with gas fires one should not even attempt to do so but it might have cooled the structure and pipelines and have prevented — or at least significantly delayed — the gas line rupture which was the major escalating factor in the Piper Alpha disaster. In many retrofitting projects, non-ideal design solutions are required. The Tartan field also fed oil to Claymore field and then onto the main line to Flotta. When it came to it, the systems failed that test.
The flange was not, however, leak-tested or pressure-tested. Go for a walk and talk to some people, face to face. It took over three weeks for the fires to be extinguished. Retrieved 3 February 2017. And what lessons can still be learned today? It is not known how effective the deluge would have been had it deployed as the nozzles often blocked with scale and the fire-water pipework on Piper Alpha was undergoing phased replacement.
For many years, the practice on Piper Alpha was to switch the fire pumps from automatic to manual when divers were in the sea. Switch off the computer. Shutdown of oil production only started on Tartan at about 22. However, shutting the inter-platform oil lines would probably have made a difference. But a regulations-bound system falls down because practices not covered by regulations are simply not addressed. Oil continued to be produced and exported into the line to Flotta for about an hour after the first explosion on Piper Alpha.
The Public Inquiry into the Piper Alpha Disaster. Summary The investigation into the Piper Alpha disaster has much to teach us thirty years on. Interconnection no rig is an island… ; 6. Although it is almost always best practice for a pressure relief valve to be sited as close as possible to the unit that it is protecting, condensate on the downstream side had to be able to drain to an appropriate vessel, so the valve was placed about 8 metres above and 15 metres away from the pump. A gas recovery module was installed by 1980.