Wireless local loop architecture. What is wireless in local loop technology? 2022-12-08
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Wireless local loop (WLL) is a telecommunications architecture that uses wireless technology to provide last mile connectivity for telephone and internet services to customers. In a traditional telephone network, the "local loop" refers to the connection between the telephone exchange and the customer's premises. In a WLL system, this connection is made using wireless technology instead of copper or fiber optic cables.
WLL systems are often used in areas where it is difficult or expensive to lay traditional cables, such as rural or remote areas, or in areas where the terrain makes it difficult to install underground or overhead cables. WLL systems can also be used in urban areas as an alternative to traditional telephone lines, particularly in areas where there is a high demand for broadband internet access.
There are several different types of WLL systems, including microwave, satellite, and cellular. Each type of WLL system has its own unique characteristics and benefits.
Microwave WLL systems use high-frequency radio waves to transmit data over short distances, typically between a few kilometers and tens of kilometers. These systems are often used in rural areas or in areas with difficult terrain, as they do not require a clear line of sight between the transmitter and receiver.
Satellite WLL systems use satellites orbiting the Earth to transmit data to and from remote areas. These systems are often used in remote or rural areas where it is not possible to lay traditional cables or where there is no existing infrastructure.
Cellular WLL systems use the same technology as mobile phones to transmit data over short distances, typically a few kilometers. These systems are often used in urban areas as an alternative to traditional telephone lines.
WLL systems have several benefits compared to traditional telephone lines. They are often cheaper to install and maintain, as they do not require the infrastructure of traditional cables. They are also more flexible, as they can be easily moved or re-configured if necessary.
However, WLL systems also have some limitations. They may not be able to provide the same level of coverage or reliability as traditional telephone lines, and they may be more susceptible to interference or other disruptions.
In summary, wireless local loop (WLL) is a telecommunications architecture that uses wireless technology to provide last mile connectivity for telephone and internet services to customers. WLL systems are often used in areas where it is difficult or expensive to lay traditional cables, and have several benefits compared to traditional telephone lines, including lower costs and greater flexibility. However, they may not provide the same level of coverage or reliability as traditional telephone lines.
Wireless Local Loop
In the Local Loop circuit, the wire trunks start from the central office, and as we move away from the central office these are then broken down into many smaller circuits after some distance. Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. The other facility that is provided in the Operation and Maintenance OAMP , routing, and billing and switching necessary functions. Government policy in India has laid down that fixed line operators will also be allowed to use WLL technology to offer mobility within a single billing area, or what is technically called a short distance calling area SDCA , broadly equivalent to a single town or city. The interface that connects the Wireless Access Unit WANU and the switch function that is connected to the PSTN is called the AWLL. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. VoIP Service for Mobile Networks 287 16.
The Wireless Access Network Access Unit WANU is made up of many individual components that complete its functions as a whole. CDMA IS-95 is a direct sequence spread spectrum DSSS system where the entire bandwidth of the system 1. A transceiver, power source, and antenna make up the radio unit. With a radio link replacing the wires, these faults become almost negligible. Therefore when the Wireline Local Loop WLL came into existence it just reduced the installation cost dramatically and speeded up the installation process. As with most wireless communication systems, the quality versus coverage area compromise remains an issue. A multipoint license would start in the millions of dollars.
Divided into two parts, theoretical aspects and applications, Wireless Local Loops brings together contributions from leading world experts in this increasingly important section of wireless communication systems. Cellular Digital Packet Data 139 8. The wireless local loop market is expected to continue to grow in developed countries to compete with wired loop providers and in developing countries to connect many that are without service. Wireless Local Loop 457 23. WLL provide a telephone system where subscribers are connected to the Public Switches Telephone Network PSTN using radio signals rather than copper wire for part or all of the connection between the subscriber and the switch. This book gives network engineers and managers a window on the world of wireless and mobile networks, from the enabling technologies and protocols to creating and managing mobile services. Switch Function SF Switch Function is associated with a switch that can be a digital switch, ISDN switch, MSC.
Subsequently, the revenue shares from long distance calls were made the same for basic and cellular operators. Proprietary systems are, therefore, positioned to provide basic fixed wireless telephony. Satellite technology has been used to provide telephony to remote areas of the world for many years. Wireless local loop WLL is a popular alternative as it has been deployed in both developed and developing nations because of its advantages. Many problems existed which were removed with the upcoming of the WLL, the labor charges and other investment were not needed anymore. Due to the enormous quantity of 802. Proprietary systems These systems are considered proprietary because they are not available on the public wireless networks and are typically customized for a specific application.
Telecommunications systems such as TDMA Time Division Multiple Access and GSM Global System for Mobile are also available. Compared with the cellular based wireless local loop, more base stations are required to cover the same service area. It is present at the local exchange office. Benefits of Using WLL WLL systems are scalable, allowing operators to continue to use their existing infrastructure as the system grows. Mobile Prepaid Phone Services 309 17. Wireless Local Loop WLL services and facilities The Closed User Group CUG can be supported by the WLL. GSM Network Signaling 173 10.
Wireless Local Loop Architecture [ WLL Architecture ]
GSM has a frame length of 4. Another major advantage of using a radio link for the last mile is that it considerably reduces the number of faults. The Wireless Access Network Unit WANU has to provide for the authentication and the privacy for the air interface between the WANU and the user side these are done with the help of Radio resource management, Limited Mobility Management, and also over the registration of the SUs Subscriber Units. Frequency division multiple access FDMA , time division multiple access TDMA , and code division multiple access CDMA are all used to accomplish WLL CDMA. GSM Mobility Management 191 11.
Lin has served on the editorial boards of the journals Wireless Networks, IEEE Networks, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, and ACM Mobile Computing and Communications, as Editor-in-Chief of Wireless Networks, Mobile Networks, and Optical Networks magazines. The service capabilities of personal access communication system include voice, fax, voiceband data, and wireless digital data. More importantly, they point out, about 90% of all existing cellular subscribers in India do not use roaming facilities or move outside their SDCAs. When the wires were used in the circuit loops they were known as the Wireline Local Loop, and when the Radio Signals were used in the circuit loops they were known as the Wireless Local Loop. By providing a self-contained treatment of the progressively important area Wireless Local Loops will have immense appeal to practising engineers, researchers and graduate students needing to understand the bakground to WLL and its major role in the provision of new services. Thus, data rate per code channel in W-CDMA can be higher than that in narrowband system. The quality requirements include link quality, reliability and fraud immunity.
A comprehensive guide to building wireless and mobile networks and services. CDMA is the one that is utilized in India. Wireless Enterprise Networks 481 24. Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. The WLL does not use the copper wire and is also much secure than the previous network and also they were much more scalable than the wired network and hence they were easily adopted by many industries. GSM Short Message Service 219 12.