The cervical plexus is a network of nerves located in the neck region of the human body. It is made up of a group of nerve fibers that originate from the fourth, fifth, and sixth cervical spinal nerves, and it innervates various muscles and structures in the neck and upper shoulder area. The cervical plexus is an important component of the peripheral nervous system, and it plays a vital role in controlling movement and sensation in the neck and upper limb.
The cervical plexus is formed by the merging of the ventral rami of the fourth, fifth, and sixth cervical nerves. These nerves emerge from the spinal cord and pass through the intervertebral foramen, or openings between the vertebrae in the spine. Once they reach the neck region, the nerves divide into smaller branches, which innervate specific muscles and structures in the neck and upper shoulder area.
The cervical plexus has several important functions in the body. It is responsible for controlling the movement of the neck and upper limb, as well as providing sensation to these areas. The cervical plexus also plays a role in regulating blood flow to the head and neck region, and it helps to control the reflexes that are necessary for maintaining balance and coordination.
There are several muscles and structures in the neck and upper shoulder area that are innervated by the cervical plexus. These include the muscles of the neck and upper back, as well as the trapezius muscle, which is responsible for moving the shoulder blade. The cervical plexus also innervates the muscles of the upper limb, including the biceps, triceps, and forearm muscles.
Injury to the cervical plexus can have serious consequences, as it can result in muscle weakness, paralysis, and loss of sensation in the neck and upper limb. This type of injury is most commonly caused by trauma, such as a car accident or a fall, but it can also be caused by surgical procedures or certain medical conditions. Treatment for cervical plexus injuries may include physical therapy, medications, and surgery, depending on the severity of the injury.
In conclusion, the cervical plexus is an important network of nerves that plays a vital role in controlling movement and sensation in the neck and upper limb. It is formed by the merging of the fourth, fifth, and sixth cervical nerves and innervates various muscles and structures in the neck and upper shoulder area. Injury to the cervical plexus can have serious consequences, and treatment may include physical therapy, medications, and surgery.
The lateral approach is currently the more commonly used approach and will be described in this chapter. Phrenicus is formed predominantly by the anterior branches of the third and fourth cervical spinal nerves, descending steeply down the front surface of the anterior staircase, passes into the thoracic cavity between the subclavian artery and the vein, medial to the inner thoracic artery. The most severe impact of phrenic nerve damage is diaphragm paralysis, which prevents the patient from being able to regulate breathing on his or her own. The right diaphragmatic nerve passes along the lateral surface of the superior vena cava, adjacent to the pericardium, is located anterior to the left diaphragmatic nerve. Â Since the heart and lungs are not perfectly symmetrical, the phrenic nerve structure and path on the left and right side are not perfectly identical as they each extend down towards the diaphragm. By visiting this site you agree to the foregoing terms and conditions.
The smaller branches have been removed for simplicity. The transverse cervical nerve innervates skin on the surface of the front of the neck with sensory nerves. The branches of the deep cervical plexus innervate the deeper structures of the neck, including the muscles of the anterior neck and the diaphragm, which is innervated by the phrenic nerve. How long until nerve damage is permanent? It supplies cutaneous sensation to the posterosuperior scalp, and commonly communicates with the posterior branch of the greater auricular nerve. How long does a torn neck muscle take to heal? The cervical plexus functions to supply nerves to muscles and sensory structures within the head, neck, and trunk. Occipitalis minor is formed mainly by the branches of the second and third cervical spinal nerves. The anterior branch of the large ear nerve goes obliquely forward and innervates the skin of the face in the region of the parotid salivary gland.
The cervical plexus is formed from the anterior primary rami of C1—C4, deep to the sternocleidomastoid muscle and in front of the scalenus medius and levator scapulae muscles. It can also cause weakness. Victor Pauchet also described a lateral approach to blocking the cervical plexus in 1920 and recommended it over the posterior approach. This is in contrast to the cutaneous branches, which travel posteriorly. What kind of doctor treats nerve damage? The block needle is inserted between the palpating fingers and advanced at an angle perpendicular to the skin. There are four sensory branches originating from the two loops formed between the anterior rami of spinal nerves C2 and C3, and C3Â and C4.
Lesser Occipital Nerve The lesser occipital nerve is derived from the C2 root, with a contribution from C3 in some individuals. An initial injection of 3 mL local anesthetic is deposited at the midpoint of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, followed by 7 mL injected subcutaneously in a caudad and cephalad direction along the posterior border of the muscle. Transverse Cervical Nerve The transverse cervical nerve is also formed by fibres from C2 and C3. The needle is advanced slowly until the transverse process is contacted Figure 7. Can it be cured? It provides sensation to the external ear and the skin over the parotid gland. After arising from the cervical plexus, the nerve travels down the surface of the anterior scalene muscle and enters the thorax.
The sacral plexus also provides nerves to the lower limbs in addition to the genitals and pelvic region. What happens to the body when the cervical nerve is injured? The branches of the cervical plexus are named depending on where they are and the structures to which they provide nerves. Lehot JJ, Durand PG: Anesthesia for carotid endarterectomy. It should be noted that due to the complex arrangement of the neuronal coverage of the various layers in the neck area as well as cross coverage from the contralateral side, the anesthesia achieved with cervical plexus block is often incomplete, and its use often requires a knowledgeable surgeon who is skilled in supplementing the block with local anesthetic as necessary. Transverse Cervical Nerve The transverse cervical nerve is also formed by fibres from C2 and C3. Why plexus are formed? The hiccup reflex can be triggered by phrenic nerve irritation, making the diaphragm contract abnormally, resulting in a small intake of air.
When should I worry about neck injury? The information we provide is grounded on academic literature and peer-reviewed research. For instance, the brachial plexus is located at the base of the neck near the collarbone. It courses upwards in a diagonal fashion and crosses the sternocleidomastoid muscle onto the parotid gland. They supply some of the muscles of the neck, back and the After arising from the cervical plexus, the muscular branches tend to travel initially in an anteromedial direction. Philadelphia, PA: FA Davis, 1920. Vloka, Ann-Sofie Smeets, Tony Tsai, and Cedric Bouts INTRODUCTION Cervical plexus anesthesia was developed early in the 20th century with two main approaches being used. Get to an emergency room immediately if your neck pain occurs with symptoms such as: Fever or chills.
By Fig 3 — The branches of the cervical plexus. In some places of the body, nerves are collected in dense, branching networks known as nerve plexuses. In this lesson, investigate the cervical plexus in more detail to understand its function in the body, the nerves its composed of, and the structures those nerves innervate. This area is clinically significant and recognized as the nerve point of the neck. The goal is to achieve block of all four major branches of the superficial cervical plexus. The dorsal and ventral roots combine to form spinal nerves as they exit through the intervertebral foramen. They descend from the superior cervical ganglion which is the largest of the three cervical ganglia.
Based on the results of the completed pain questionnaire, additional examinations can be carried out, and apart from physical treatment other methods of treatment will be suggested. The brachial plexus emerges from the cervical vertebrae five thru eight and provides nerves to structures within the arms, shoulders, and torso. Is your neck connected to your spine? Munchen Med Wschr 1912;59:794—796. Cervical spinal nerves, also called cervical nerves, provide functional control and sensation to different parts of the body based on the spinal level where they branch out from the spinal cord. The cervical plexus has connections with the sublingual nerve with the help of the anterior branches of the first and second cervical spinal nerves, with the additional nerve, with the brachial plexus through the anterior branch of the fourth cervical spinal nerve , with the superior cervical node of the sympathetic trunk. Transversus colli consists of the fibers of the anterior branch of the third cervical spinal nerve.