Stages of demographic transition. What Is the Demographic Transition Model? 2022-12-11
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Demographic transition is the process by which a society's population changes over time. It is characterized by shifts in fertility, mortality, and population growth rates. The stages of demographic transition can be divided into four main phases: pre-industrial, transitional, industrial, and post-industrial.
Pre-industrial phase: This is the first stage of demographic transition and is characterized by high fertility and mortality rates. In pre-industrial societies, fertility and mortality rates are high because of a lack of access to modern healthcare and poor living conditions. As a result, the population growth rate is relatively stable, with the number of births and deaths roughly equal.
Transitional phase: This is the second stage of demographic transition and is characterized by a decrease in mortality rates and a subsequent increase in population growth. This phase is marked by improvements in living conditions and healthcare, which lead to a decrease in infant mortality and an increase in life expectancy. As a result, the population begins to grow more rapidly.
Industrial phase: This is the third stage of demographic transition and is characterized by a further decrease in mortality rates and a decrease in fertility rates. In industrial societies, access to education and employment opportunities for women often leads to a decrease in fertility rates as people choose to have fewer children. This, combined with continued improvements in healthcare, leads to a further decrease in mortality rates and an increase in the population growth rate.
Post-industrial phase: This is the final stage of demographic transition and is characterized by low fertility and mortality rates. In post-industrial societies, fertility rates are often below the replacement level, meaning that the population is not growing as rapidly as in previous stages. This is often due to increased access to education, employment opportunities, and modern healthcare, which leads to smaller family sizes and longer life expectancy.
In conclusion, demographic transition is a process that occurs over time and is marked by shifts in fertility, mortality, and population growth rates. Understanding the stages of demographic transition can help policymakers and researchers understand and predict population trends and make informed decisions about the future.
Thirdly, there is absence of effective medical facilities. These are not so much medical breakthroughs Europe passed through stage two before the advances of the mid-twentieth century, although there was significant medical progress in the nineteenth century, such as the development of A consequence of the decline in mortality in Stage Two is an increasingly rapid growth in population growth a. However, this late decline occurred from a very low initial level. This is due to the fact that the death rate is higher than the birth rate. Examples of Stage 3 countries are Botswana, Colombia, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Mexico, South Africa, and the United Arab Emirates, just to name a few. What are the stages in demographic transition? In Stage 1, which applied to most of the world before the Industrial Revolution, both birth rates and death rates are high. .
Many people also start to prefer smaller families, where they can concentrate more resources on less people and increase overall livelihood. Later Expanding Stage: Sharply Falling Birth Rate and Low Death Rate: The third stage is characterised by sharp decrease in birth rate, with death rate remaining constant or falling by small number. Death rates are low for a number of reasons, primarily lower rates of diseases and higher production of food. The high birth rates in the previous stage produced more overall people that will reach reproductive age, and even if they produce fewer offspring than previous generations, they are still adding to the population. Conclusion: This theory is not an only theory about the population cycle but it is the most accepted one. Demographics Look at our world.
This theory is criticized by some as being biased and by others being outdated due to changes in modern industrial development and population statistics. After the next World War, we will see Germany lose more women and children and soon start again from a developing stage. Birth rate declines with a more rapid decline in the death rate. My core areas are Economics and Political Science. The first stage of the demographic transition is the pre-industrial stage.
Once the Southern economy was rebuilt in the late 19th century, it moved from transitional to industrial. Sudden drop in birth rate from changing social customs. Notably, some historic populations have taken many years to replace lives after events such as the Some have claimed that DTM does not explain the early fertility declines in much of Asia in the second half of the 20th century or the delays in fertility decline in parts of the Middle East. As the gap is closed between death rates and birth rates, the human population will stop increasing and remain at a stable level. Many of the least developed countries today are in Stage 2. Although the birth rate and death rate can fluctuate slightly, overall they remain equal, which results in zero population growth.
For example, candle makers using tallow gleaned from animal fat or factories spinning cloth in far more significant quantities than individual homesteads or even whole villages can produce. The continued second stage results in further decline of the mortality rate. The high birth rates in the previous stage produced more overall people that will reach reproductive age. This example of uneven distribution would be a topic of demography, which is the study of the size, density, and distribution of the human population. Lesson Summary Demography is the study of the size, density, and distribution of the human population as a country goes through four economic, technological, and social change modernization stages, exemplified by a four-stage demographic transition model. Demographic Transition Model blog series: Stage 1,.
The model is a generalization that applies to these countries as a group and may not accurately describe all individual cases. During this stage, the birth rates begin to decline for many reasons. On the other hand, there are areas of the U. At the same time, death rates remain stable and low due to the economic and social changes that improved living standards during the previous stage. Almost everyone has equal education and work opportunities, so people choose not to have kids but instead work hard and live out long lives spending their money. ADVERTISEMENTS: Firstly: With economic development and urbanisation the economic role of the women outside the home increases. A mortality decline was not observed in the U.
For all these reasons, death rates fell, especially in children. The reason being that when the death rate is high stage one , the infant mortality rate is very high, often above 200 deaths per 1000 children born. Post-Industrial Stage Following the industrial stage is the final stage of the demographic transition. Therefore, population growth rate registers new high with sudden increase of population. What are the four phases of demographic transition? ADVERTISEMENTS: The following points highlight the four main stages of demographic transition. The Four-Stage Demographic Transition Model Pre-Industrial Stage The first stage of the demographic transition is the pre-industrial stage. But to reduce the birth rate, some endogenous factors such as changes in customs, social attitudes, beliefs and dogmas about marriage and also about size of the family etc.
Parents begin to consider it a duty to buy children s books and toys, partly due to education and access to family planning, people begin to reassess their need for children and their ability to raise them. ADVERTISEMENTS: For example, the rate of growth of population in various countries stood at 0. Social, environmental, and political action all have severe consequences during this stage in regards to population because the birth rate and death rate are so fragile. With the gradual attainment of economic development, the economy of the country started to experience a change in its structure from a purely agrarian to an industrialised one. I will go for UPSC to administer people using my skills and aptitudes.