Various approaches to management. Project Management Approaches and Methodologies 2022-12-09
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Management refers to the process of organizing and controlling the resources of an organization in order to achieve its goals and objectives. There are various approaches to management that have been developed over the years, each with its own set of characteristics and principles. These approaches are based on different assumptions about human behavior, decision-making, and organizational structure, and they have been used by managers in different contexts and industries to achieve success. In this essay, we will examine four major approaches to management: scientific management, bureaucratic management, human relations management, and contingency management.
Scientific management, also known as Taylorism, is an approach that emphasizes the use of scientific methods to analyze and improve work processes. It was developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor in the late 19th century and is based on the idea that there is one best way to perform a task, and that this way can be discovered through careful analysis and experimentation. The principles of scientific management include the use of time and motion studies to identify the most efficient way to perform a task, the division of labor to specialize workers and increase efficiency, and the use of incentives to motivate workers.
Bureaucratic management is an approach that emphasizes the importance of rules, procedures, and hierarchy in organizations. It was developed by Max Weber in the early 20th century and is based on the idea that organizations should be structured in a rational and efficient manner, with clear lines of authority and decision-making. The principles of bureaucratic management include the use of formalized rules and procedures to guide decision-making and behavior, the use of hierarchy to delegate authority and responsibility, and the use of specialized departments and divisions to organize and coordinate work.
Human relations management is an approach that emphasizes the importance of human factors in the workplace, such as motivation, communication, and leadership. It was developed in the 1930s and 1940s by researchers such as Elton Mayo and Abraham Maslow, and is based on the idea that people are more likely to be productive and satisfied if they feel valued and supported in the workplace. The principles of human relations management include the use of participative management and employee involvement to empower and engage workers, the use of communication and collaboration to build trust and understanding, and the use of leadership and motivation techniques to inspire and guide employees.
Contingency management is an approach that emphasizes the importance of adapting to the unique characteristics and needs of an organization or situation. It is based on the idea that there is no one best way to manage, and that the most effective approach will depend on the specific context in which the organization operates. The principles of contingency management include the use of situation analysis to identify the key factors that will influence the success of a management strategy, the use of flexible and adaptive strategies to respond to changing circumstances, and the use of leadership and decision-making techniques that are appropriate for the given situation.
In conclusion, there are various approaches to management that have been developed over the years, each with its own set of characteristics and principles. These approaches are based on different assumptions about human behavior, decision-making, and organizational structure, and they have been used by managers in different contexts and industries to achieve success. Understanding these approaches can help managers choose the most appropriate strategy for their organization and situation, and apply it effectively to achieve their goals and objectives.
Different Approaches To Management Essay Example
He started his career as a trainee in a small machine shop and was promoted to the level of an engineer. First of all, management principles are not universally applicable in today's complex business situation. It basically emerged from systems analysis. Managers should retain responsibility through centralization but at the same time give their subordinates enough authority to do their jobs properly. Since management is concerned with problem solving, it has to make use of mathematical tools and techniques. Subordination: The interests of one person should not take priority over the interests of the organization as a whole.
The systems approach to management is also important because it helps in avoiding entropy. If the project is on time, the value will show 0. In fact, he has advocated the necessity of a formal organization structure with set rules and regulations. The fragmentation of work on account of its emphasis on individual tasks leads to monotony. Criticism of the neo-classical school of thought Despite the brilliant contributions by the behavioral school of thought to the theories of management, it was criticized on the following grounds: It is believed that the procedures and analysis of the findings and the conclusions drawn thereon have little relevance. Taylor as the most important. His primary concern was to increase productivity through greater efficiency in production and increased pay for workers, through the application of the scientific method.
Therefore, this hybrid approach takes the best of two methodologies and allows you to apply the most appropriate aspects of both. As situation changes, the solutions also differ. He advocated the necessity of concern for the welfare of workers. The Gantt chart is used for production planning to compare actual and planned performances. The organisations were to operate in strict rules and regulations also implied as 'the red-tape. The Gantt chart is used for production planning and to compare the planned and actual performances.
This school of thought, therefore, attaches importance to the need for cooperation and positive interaction among such groups of people so that work flow will be smooth. Besides, others who see their co-workers winning rewards for inspirational efficiency will feel motivated too. Career advancement based on merit Selection and promotions should be based on the qualifications and performance of members. Besides, trust is a mutual entity, and every time you show trust in your employees, their faith in you will also amplify in the best interest of the organisation. Henry Robinson Towne 1844—1924 He emphasized the significance of skills in running a business. Furthermore, such inclusiveness will also promote a greater sense of belonging in the workplace.
Approaches to Management: Classical, Modern, Scientific and System Approach
Moreover, you can also put up the drafts of your performance plans for discussions and deliberations. These approaches demonstrate the evolution of the understanding of the functions, role, skills, and effect of a manager on an organization. The system approach is based on the generalisation that an organisation is a system and its components are inter-related and inter-dependent. The IT approach to management delivers a unique experience to every stakeholder including customer, employee, team leaders, management, owners, and general public and regulatory agencies. It means that if a manager effectively coordinates the efforts of related sub-systems, the result will be greater than the sum total of such independent efforts, that is, 2 + 2 will be greater than 4. Illumination experiments These experiments took place initially between 1924 and 1927, in Hawthorne Plant of Western Electric Company and involved industrial engineers of the same company. They have various mental wellness initiatives and stress management programs to keep their employees going.
7 Extraordinary Approaches to Performance Management
ADVERTISEMENTS: Approaches to Management by Scientific School and Administrative School of Thought! The evolution of management theory can be studied under the following three parts: 1. Chester I Barnard viewed executive as a component of a formal organization and latter as a part of entire cooperative system involving physical, biological, social and psychological elements. Thus, systems approach helps to study the basic features and functions of the organisation to its minutest detail. The classical school of thought developed in three different directions: the scientific management approach, the administrative approach, and the bureaucratic approach, which also falls under the administrative school of thought. Automation is the current buzzword everywhere whether the organisation is in the agriculture, manufacturing or service sector. Administrative management is based on the belief that management is a separate and distinct activity from work itself, and that managers should use their knowledge and skills to plan, organize, and control work.
IT is extensively deployed to develop IT applications, business solutions and devices. Modern management theory can be traced from 1960s to today and it can be viewed more closely through three contemporary approaches to management, i. An organization takes the input in the form of various resources such as men, machine, money and material. Bureaucratic Organization : ADVERTISEMENTS: Max Weber pioneered the theory of the bureaucratic organization, which places emphasis on the authority structures and the authority relations. Argyris, therefore, suggested that managers try to create a model II type of organization.
The scientific and technological advance has thus brought management and mathematics closer to each other. This theory also ignores the human desire for job satisfaction. The manager has to carry out some of the functions simultaneously while keeping track of other functions. An industry is a system and every firm or a company operating therein is a subsystem. As per HubSpot, the employee attrition rates are 15 percent lower in organisations that implement incessant feedback loops. As per Fayol, authority is the right to give orders and the power to get obedience, Responsibility is about being accountable, and hence both Authority and responsibility are co-extensive.
This school emphasizes that the organization or decision making is a logical process and it can be expressed in terms of mathematical symbols and relationships. With trust, you can build morales that can defeat even the most insurmountable challenges! The modern approach views finance function in broader sense. The iterative and incremental approach allows team members to continuously review problems and apply solutions in a constantly evolving situation. How do you explain the modern approach to management theory? There have been some humongous overhauls in the last few years and what we see today is a reinvented and reimagined corporate space. They also fail to consider the influences of internal and external environmental forces affecting an organization and only lay stress on achieving higher productivity, more than anything else. Tasks are the specific work processes that are completed to produce outputs. During the latter period of his service, Fayol used to deliver lectures on administration.